Dahlias (70 photos): types and features of care
Dahlias are shrouded in mysterious legends and mysterious stories. On giving, the appearance of a magnificent beautiful flower marked a new era. After all, it is believed that the first dahlia grew on the site of a dying bonfire, the latter during the ice age. Romantic, isn't it?
Dahlias got both of their names in honor of outstanding botanists - Dahlias (dahlias) and Dali (Latin Dahlia). In nature, lush herbaceous perennials grow in the Mexican mountains. This is Mexico's national flower and a true Aztec artifact.
The Aztecs used dahlias in rituals and ceremonies, prepared various dishes from them, and even treated epilepsy. Medicinal properties were attributed to the roots of plants in Europe. And all because they contain a large percentage of fructose, which positively affects the level of insulin.
According to legend, the dahlia was a luxurious exclusive flower that was hidden from prying eyes and cherished, like a valuable treasure in the royal garden. But once he was kidnapped by a brave gardener to give his beloved - and so the dahlias got into people.
Later, dahlias were used instead of potatoes on the farm and made tobacco pipes from them. But the decorative look could not compete with more affordable and productive crops. But he was appreciated by gardeners and breeders of the Madrid Botanical Garden, from where he went around the world.
Types of Dahlia
Garden dahlias are very diverse and by the number of shades easily bypass most of the brethren. You can plant the whole garden in different varieties and never happen again. Moreover, not only the palette, but also the appearance of the flowers differs: from tiny compact bushes to tall 2-meter beauties.
Dahlias are spherical
This is the most famous and recognizable variety with voluminous rounded inflorescences. Large elastic petals gathered in cone-shaped tubes look interesting. Unlike pompom dahlias, these flowers are quite loose and soft.
If you are looking for dense, lush and voluminous inflorescences - you need pion-shaped dahlias. The flower is collected from wide oval petals in several rows, and each row is slightly smaller than the previous one. And the smallest and shortest are twisted into tubes and form the middle.
The name of the pom-pom dahlias speaks for itself: the inflorescences really look like small pompons. Unlike varieties with wide flat petals, here they are twisted into tubes. The whole flower is much smaller, but very dense and resilient.
Bright and effective category pleases the eye with a harmonious duet of simplicity and expressiveness. In one inflorescence, petals of different shapes and sizes are combined: large and flat with a fringing, long and thin with a second layer and small tubes in the middle.
Anemone is a small grassy flower with large wide petals, and the anemone dahlia resembles it. These varieties resemble their closest relatives - collar dahlias. Thin small tubes are grouped surrounded by flat wide petals.
The unusual appearance is notable for its petals, which you are unlikely to find among other garden flowers. They are tightly twisted into thin narrow needles, which gave the name of the variety. Moreover, the length, shape and density of the petals depends on the particular variety, and there are a lot of them.
This is one of the most unusual and specific varieties that differ externally. Inflorescences of nymphaea dahlias are almost flat, although the middle seems very voluminous and textured. It is interesting to track color contrasts and transitions between the layers of the petals.
Dahlias are undemanding, despite their lush flowering. They easily tolerate different temperatures and lighting, take root in any area and are not too vulnerable. For the most part, only the flowering period depends on compliance with the rules of care, but not its beauty.
Dahlias are thermophilic, so they need a temperature above 20 degrees. They are planted when it has already become warmer, and they must be dug out in the late autumn for wintering. You can’t leave tubers to hibernate in the ground even under leaves and film - they will freeze and will not germinate anymore.
Dahlias need light, but 6-8 hours are enough for them, so you can easily find a place in the garden. In the sun, flowers are better pulled up, so the stem breaks less often. In penumbra dahlias also feel good, but they will bloom not so long and magnificent.
Humidity is almost the only requirement that should be taken really seriously. Choose moderate and controlled watering 25-30 cm deep, because otherwise tubers can rot. Be sure to think of a drainage layer of gravel, pebbles, expanded clay or crushed brick. Mulch and loosen the soil after heavy and prolonged rains so that the water does not stagnate.
Dahlias are absolutely indifferent to the land on which they grow, because in the natural latitudes they are by no means the most nutritious soil. Equally beautiful flowers can be grown on fertile black soil and on sandy soil. Loam, ordinary garden soil for flowers and ready-made store mixes are suitable.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Apply the first fertilizer when you plant tubers directly into the same pit. Suitable organic fertilizers or well-spaced compost 2 years ago. In the future, fertilizers will be conveniently introduced in liquid form during straits. Add nitrogen to build leaves, and superphosphate for lush flowering.
Although the dahlia stems seem thick and thick, they are quite fragile. They can be broken by careless movement or even a strong gust of wind, so they definitely need a backup. The first pegs are installed when planting tubers, otherwise then the risk of damaging the root is high.
Transplantation and reproduction
Dahlias are grown from tubers that are planted in spring or early summer. It is important that there are no frosts on the street, and the soil warms up well to a depth. If you want to plant flowers early, then be sure to protect the seedlings from the cold.
When landing, be sure to ensure that the growth points are above ground level, otherwise they will rot. And you can sprout flowers in advance in sawdust under a plastic wrap with a small slot for ventilation. When germinating, constantly moisten the tubers so that they wake up and sprout.
Pest and Disease Control
The most common dahlia disease is gray rot, which appears due to improper watering or excess nitrogen. You will notice brown spots, crooked peduncles and gray patches on dry buds. It is important to act as quickly as possible and remove all damaged fragments.
There are other fungal diseases - white rot and fusarium. They have similar symptoms and the same fighting tools. But prevention comes first: selection of planting material, removal of diseased plants, culling, treatment with fungicides.
Especially carefully you need to protect young shoots of dahlias, because they are more vulnerable to pests. Insects spoil the leaves and buds, which is why soft tissues are not able to open completely. Then all the damage will be visible on the ripened inflorescence, so use insecticides immediately.
Dahlias - photo
A little care and care, and dahlias will thank you with a magnificent bouquet of inflorescences in the garden! Just see how good and attractive they are!