Pear diseases: descriptions with photos and methods of treatment
Unfortunately, fruit trees are often susceptible to various diseases. Breeders manage to breed all new varieties with increased immunity, but it is impossible to insure yourself from everything at once. Therefore, in order for pears to grow healthy and productive, you need to immediately familiarize yourself with possible problems. We have already prepared a list of common diseases with descriptions and photos, as well as learned effective methods of treatment!
The main enemy of most fruit crops is the ubiquitous scab. No gardener will be able to completely avoid it, even with an ideal selection of varieties and conditions. Olive spots on the leaves appear velvety, the fruits are covered with dark rot, and later - they are deformed and cracked.
Choose scab resistant varieties and maintain distance between plantings. Regularly loosened the soil, thin out the crowns and fight, remove the scavengers. For prevention, spray pears thrice with Bordeaux liquid, and for treatment, use Skor or other systemic fungicides.
2. Powdery mildew
The fungus is easy to detect, because the leaves of the pear are covered with a whitish, fluffy coating. In fact, these are mycelium with spores that spread the disease even faster, and the plots themselves dry and die. Worst of all the disease is borne by very young shoots and branches.
Always remove diseased parts immediately, thin out the crown and treat the sections with antiseptics. A solution of potassium permanganate is a simple folk prevention, sparing for plants. You can also use soda ash. For more thorough spraying, specialized fungicides are needed: Fundazole, Sulfite and analogues.
This type of rot primarily affects a tree trunk. The bark becomes a red tint, and then gradually dries and cracks. Best fungus survives in areas already damaged by the sun or frost.
With a sterile and very sharp knife, carefully cut off the diseased bark, going a little to the healthy part. Treat with an antiseptic and coat with a mixture of clay and mullein. Inspect the trees during the season and remove diseased or dried branches.
This is the same fruit rot that can destroy the entire crop if a couple of infected fruits fall into the storage box. First, brown spots appear on the pear, and then they gradually disperse and become covered with tubercles. The fruit becomes a soft and loose peddler, especially in the hot and humid last days of summer.
Thin out the crowns in time and make sure that nothing interferes with the air circulation, and also immediately destroy the infected fruits. In spring, spray the pear with Bordeaux liquid and Hom. Periodically process planting with lime milk. Strengthen tree immunity with foliar supplements from a complex bio-cocktail.
Rust is easy to detect on any fruit crop thanks to bright red spots that are strewn with leaves. Later, the disease spreads to the fruits - and such pears must be destroyed.
At the end of autumn, be sure to remove leaves and plant rain, because most fungi winter in them. Sprinkle pears with Bordeaux liquid in the spring, and treat everything with soil with urea before winter. During the season 3-5 times carry out preventive spraying with systemic fungicides.
6. Bacterial burn
This disease is characteristic of pome crops and manifests itself at the flowering stage. The leaves turn black, the inflorescences turn brown and fly around, weak shoots die off, and the bark cracks. Bacteria most often carry insects, but sometimes enough wind and a bad neighborhood. Even resistant varieties are then restored for several years.
All affected branches and shoots of a pear need to be cut, capturing the healthy part by 15 cm or more. Treat the slices with a concentrated antibiotic solution and spray the whole tree with it. Use Bordeaux fluid regularly during the season - if necessary, up to 9-10 times.
7. Sooty fungus
A specific fungus is characteristic of pears and some other fruit crops. Black plaque is visible on the surface, which really looks like soot. It diverges more actively on trees affected by aphids, which secrete sugary substances.
At first, the disease affects weak plants, so it is important to strengthen the immune system and fertilize plantings. Always use insecticides against aphids and other pests like Calypso. At the same time, spray the pear with mild fungicides, like Fitoverm.
8. Black cancer
The disease affects the branches and trunk of the pear with brown spots that darken, crack and burst to cambium. Cancer can develop for several years, and is usually accompanied by other infections, because weakened immunity and open wounds are susceptible to any fungi and germs.
Sick wood cannot be cured, so it must be completely cut along with the healthy part around. Treat the knife with an antiseptic, and the wound with copper sulfate. Coat the damaged area with a clay and mullein garden mixture.