Chrysanthemums (90 photos): types, proper care
One Chinese philosopher said, "If you want to be happy all your life, grow chrysanthemums." Such simple and elegant flowers from ancient times inspired poets, artists and even emperors. Now chrysanthemums are found everywhere, because the diversity of their species is almost impossible to count. Do you like bright, colorful and elegant flower beds in the garden - then pay attention to them!
The name "chrysanthemum" literally translates as "Golden Flower". In 1753, it was given by Karl Linay, and so far this is the most accurate description of ancient varieties. Indeed, even ancient Chinese engravings show small yellow flowers resembling daisies.
The first chrysanthemums were used in cooking, medicine and even winemaking for the preparation of festive drinks. It was believed that they give vitality, help from headaches, give energy.
Chrysanthemums can be grassy or shrubs, annual or perennial, with smooth or pubescent stems. Flowers are collected in a basket, but inflorescences differ significantly among themselves, depending on the species.
Annual varieties live only one season before frosts, but at the same time they are very unpretentious, and you can plant them directly on the flower bed. Perennial ones require more delicate handling and are classified among themselves as greenhouse and Korean. Korean varieties are resistant to frost and can even winter in the open.
Most species bloom in autumn, with different varieties covering the entire period from September to November. But there are also summer wild chrysanthemums, whose buds open in June and July.
The history of the appearance of chrysanthemums is shrouded in legends and riddles, because their history has more than 3 thousand years. And the first references and descriptions of a similar flower were found in ancient Chinese manuscripts of the 15th century BC. Their images are found even on ceramic jewelry of the time, found by archaeologists.
In honor of the legendary plant, the city is called Chu-San, which literally means "City of Chrysanthemums." Along with orchid, bamboo and plum, this is one of the most respected and revered symbols. Ordinary people did not even have the right to grow this flower, and the ancient Chinese army took it as their symbol.
But for a long time there was no variety, and only at the end of the first millennium did several dozen varieties appear. But by the middle of the second millennium, this number exceeded 3 thousand.
The Chinese rulers did not want the chrysanthemum to leave the country, but once Buddhist monks transported it to Japan. And it was local flower growers who were able to achieve species diversity, including large, small and terry varieties.
Since then, chrysanthemum has been adorning the national emblem, coins, top honors and the official imperial seal in Japan. And some varieties are eaten as vegetables or dessert for vitality.
In Europe, chrysanthemums began to be cultivated in Holland, and in the 17-18 centuries they gradually spread to other countries. And thanks to its unpretentiousness, this species soon appeared in gardens around the world.
Types of Chrysanthemums
The wealth of modern varieties comes from only two species: southeastern Indian and Chinese silkworm. Some chrysanthemums are grown for cut only in greenhouses, others in the open or even in pots.
The early large-flowered variety begins to bloom at the end of summer, grows to 60 cm and is used for bouquets. Smooth shoots with small light green leaves adorn large double white flowers, which can reach up to 16 cm in diameter.
An elegant tall shrub with small pink flowers reaches 35 cm in diameter. The variety belongs to the early ones and begins to bloom in September, and the diameter of blossoming buds is up to 6-7 cm. The thick dark green foliage creates a bright juicy background during flowering.
This is a classic white chrysanthemum native to England with powerful densely strewn with dark leaves stems. The bushes reach a height of 1.5 m and need to be supported so that dense dense terry flowers do not outweigh. Spherical inflorescences easily reach 15 cm, and gradually turn yellow in the middle. Evelyn Busch - a variety with increased resistance to disease and frost, just warm the rhizome by winter.
An elegant decorative variety of large-flowered chrysanthemums of a delicate pink hue was bred in the Crimea. Unlike the Gazelle, Valentina Tereshkova has large expressive leaves. The color of the flowers is heterogeneous: in the middle it is darker, and toward the lower edges it brightens.
An elegant spherical bush grows to 60 cm and is covered with small flowers up to 3 cm in diameter. This is a long-term variety of chrysanthemums that begins to bloom by the end of September or early October.
A popular annual variety is planted with seedlings every spring and is classified as keeled chrysanthemums. Flowers resemble daisies, only a bright fiery or purple hue with a yellow border and a golden core. In bouquets, Flammenstahl is in perfect harmony with the same colored keeled chrysanthemums.
Kokarda is a bright and expressive variety, the peculiarity of which is its long three-month flowering, starting in July. Simple non-double flowers are more like buds with snow-white petals, a bright buffy middle and contrasting red-brown rings.
The main feature of this variety is a huge and varied color scheme: from white and pink to yellow, orange, red and even almost purple. A perennial species with plentiful small flowering on spherical bushes blossoms in all its glory by September.
This small perennial variety is also called field, and outwardly it looks most like large daisies. White, yellow or grayish petals grow around a flat core with a diameter of 3-5 cm. The height of the bush is 30-60 cm, and it is all dotted with cirrus or toothed textured leaves.
A decorative mid-flowering variety is actively used for bouquets due to neat, smooth shoots. The stem is densely covered with leaves - dark green, bizarre rifled shape. The flowers are also lush, in the form of elegant and edegant hemispheres of yellow, orange or pink color with a greenish core.
The magnificent single-headed chrysanthemum is notable for its voluminous spherical flower, the petals of which are turned upwards and tightly cover the entire core. The diameter of the ball reaches 10-12 cm, and an unusual green tint is combined with the same unusual pronounced aroma. The height of the flower is up to 80 cm, and in the bouquet it can stand up to 20 days.
To enjoy the beauty of bright chrysanthemums without any extra problems and efforts, you will have to immediately create favorable conditions for the flower. The subtleties of the content in the soil or in flowerpots are almost the same - rather, they are affected by the characteristics of a particular variety.
Chrysanthemums tolerate high temperatures, and some species also suffer frosts down to -10 degrees. Shoots grow at 2-6 degrees, and buds form at 10. Only heat above 30 degrees under the scorching sun can be dangerous.
Chrysanthemums prefer loamy nutrient soils, but even poor sandy or clayy soil can be significantly improved if you do this in advance. Bear in mind that flowers do not take root in lowlands with constant waterlogging and the risk of waterlogging.
Chrysanthemums love the abundance of light, so plant them only in well-lit areas. At the same time, do not worry about the wind and the draft - the flower is almost insensitive to them. Bear in mind that in summer, with a long daylight, stems are formed with leaves, and in autumn with a short day, flower buds are formed.
With high humidity, chrysanthemums die, so it is better not to water individual varieties at all. Regular watering is needed only at the stage of active growth, and then be sure to monitor the current state of the flowers. For watering, use soft, warm water and try not to wet the foliage and the base of the bush.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
To saturate the soil, add peat, humus and compost, and if the soil is too heavy - also sand. Organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced during digging before planting. When choosing specific compounds, consider the variety of your flowers and be sure to close the fertilizer deeper.
If you need thick, dense and compact bushes, gradually shorten the tops. For volume and splendor, shoots can be plucked in two passes: main and side. Always remove wilted and damaged flowers immediately: this way the bush looks neater and the risk of disease is lower.
Planting and propagation of chrysanthemums
For planting chrysanthemums in the open ground, it is recommended to choose rainy and cloudy days. Dig a hole up to 40 cm, plentifully fields and think over a drainage system. After that, put and drip the chrysanthemum, but do not deepen it too much: its rhizome grows parallel to the ground.
If you properly prepare the soil, you can safely transplant even blooming chrysanthemums. The main thing is to improve the quality of the soil somewhere in a month, and fertilizers to be applied in a couple of days. And after planting for the first time priteniya site non-woven material until the flower takes root.
Pest and Disease Control
Although chrysanthemums are unpretentious, they are still not without problems, diseases and pests. The most common are fungal infections, which occur due to improper watering, high acidity, an excess of nitrogen, or poor air circulation.
If the leaves turn yellow and become stained, all affected areas should be cut as soon as possible: the disease spreads from the bottom up. Do not forget to use fungicides and regularly clean dead plants.
Also fungal diseases include rust, wilting, powdery mildew. The methods of control remain the same: to improve ventilation, thin out the bushes, monitor the pH balance of the soil and the frequency of watering.
The most common virus among chrysanthemums is the so-called mosaic, because of which the plants lag behind in growth and wither. If any viral diseases are detected, the affected plants must be removed and destroyed.
One of the reasons for yellow-brown spots is nematodes, which winter well in the soil. Also found are aphids that feed on the juice of young plants, and a spider mite that loves dry, hot weather. Insecticides are used to combat parasites, and you can remove them from the leaves directly during irrigation with a stream of water.
Chrysanthemums - photo
It is impossible to cover all the variety and luxurious chrysanthemums in just a few sections. In order to more imbued with the beauty and elegance of a delicate flower, we have collected for you this selection of photos!